Background: Patients with non-transfusion-dependent thalassaemia (NTDT), although they do not require regular blood transfusions for survival, can still accrue a heavy burden of comorbidities. No approved disease-modifying therapies exist for these patients. We aimed to investigate the safety and efficacy of mitapivat (Agios Pharmaceuticals, Cambridge, MA, USA), a pyruvate kinase activator, in adults with non-transfusion-dependent (NTD) α-thalassaemia or NTD β-thalassaemia.
Methods: In this open-label, multicentre, phase 2 study, patients were recruited from four academic clinical study sites in Oakland, CA, and Boston, MA, USA; Toronto, ON, Canada; and London, UK. Patients were eligible if they were aged 18 years or older, with NTDT (including β-thalassaemia with or without α-globin gene mutations, haemoglobin E β-thalassaemia, or α-thalassaemia), and a baseline haemoglobin concentration of 10·0 g/dL or lower. During a 24-week core period, mitapivat was administered orally at 50 mg twice daily for the first 6 weeks followed by an escalation to 100 mg twice daily for 18 weeks thereafter. The primary endpoint was haemoglobin response (a ≥1·0 g/dL increase in haemoglobin concentration from baseline at one or more assessments between weeks 4 and 12). Efficacy and safety were assessed in the full analysis set (ie, all patients who received at least one dose of study drug). This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03692052, and is closed to accrual.
Findings: Between Dec 28, 2018, and Feb 6, 2020, 27 patients were screened, of whom 20 were enrolled (15 [75%] with β-thalassaemia and five [25%] with α-thalassaemia) and received mitapivat. The median age of patients was 44 years (IQR 35-56), 15 (75%) of 20 patients were female, five (25%) were male, and ten (50%) identified as Asian. 16 (80% [90% CI 60-93]) of 20 patients had a haemoglobin response (p<0·0001), five (100%) of five with α-thalassaemia and 11 (73%) of 15 with β-thalassaemia. 17 (85%) patients had a treatment-emergent adverse event, and 13 had a treatment-emergent event that was considered to be treatment related. One serious treatment-emergent adverse event occurred (grade 3 renal impairment), which was considered unrelated to study drug, resulting in discontinuation of treatment. The most commonly reported treatment-emergent adverse events were initial insomnia (ten [50%] patients), dizziness (six [30%]), and headache (five [25%]). No patients died during the 24-week core period.
Interpretation: These efficacy and safety results support the continued investigation of mitapivat for the treatment of both α-thalassaemia and β-thalassaemia.
Funding: Agios PharmaceuticalsRead Publication