Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is potentially curative for patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). Patients with stable donor engraftment after allogeneic HSCT generally do not experience SCD-related complications; however, there are no published data specifically reporting the change in vaso-occlusive events (VOE) after HSCT.
Data regarding the number of VOEs requiring medical attention in the 2 years before allogeneic HSCT were compared with the number of VOEs in the 2 years (0-12 months and 12-24 months) after allogeneic HSCT in patients with SCD. One-hundred sixty-three patients with SCD underwent allogeneic HSCT between 2005 and 2019. The average age at the time of HSCT was 21 years (range, 7 months – 64 years). Most patients underwent nonmyeloablative conditioning (75% [N = 123]) and had a matched sibling donor (72% [N = 118]). The mean number of VOEs was reduced from 5.6 (range, 0-52) in the 2 years before HSCT to 0.9 (range, 0-12) in the 2 years after HSCT (P < .001). Among the post-HSCT events, VOE was more frequent during the first 12 months (0.8 [range, 0-12]) than at 12 to 24 months after HSCT (0.1 [range, 0-8) (P < .001)).
In patients who had graft rejection (12%, N = 20), VOEs were reduced from 6.6 (range, 0-24) before HSCT to 1.1 (range, 0-6) and 0.8 (range, 0-8) at 0 to 12 months and 12 to 24 months after HSCT, respectively (P < .001). VOEs requiring medical care were significantly reduced after allogeneic HSCT for patients with SCD. These data will inform the development of novel autologous HSCT gene therapy approaches.Read publication