Scientific Literature

Assessment of Subclinical Renal Glomerular and Tubular Dysfunction in Children with Beta Thalassemia Major

Mahmoud, A. A., Elian, D. M., Abd El Hady, N. M., et al. Children, 8(2), 100. (2021)

Background: A good survival rate among patients with beta thalassemia major (beta-TM) has led to the appearance of an unrecognized renal disease. Therefore, we aimed to assess the role of serum cystatin-C as a promising marker for the detection of renal glomerular dysfunction and N-acetyl beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) and kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1) as potential markers for the detection of renal tubular injury in beta-TM children.

Methods: This case-control study was implemented on 100 beta-TM children receiving regular blood transfusions and undergoing iron chelation therapy and 100 healthy children as a control group. Detailed histories of complete physical and clinical examinations were recorded. All subjected children underwent blood and urinary investigations.

Results: There was a significant increase in serum cystatin-C (p < 0.001) and a significant decrease in eGFR in patients with beta-TM compared with controls (p = 0.01). There was a significant increase in urinary NAG, KIM-1, UNAG/Cr, and UKIM-1/Cr (p < 0.001) among thalassemic children, with a significant positive correlation between serum cystatin-C, NAG and KIM-1 as regards serum ferritin, creatinine, and urea among thalassemic patients. A negative correlation between serum cystatin-C and urinary markers with eGFR was noted.

Conclusion: Serum cystatin-C is a good marker for detection of glomerular dysfunction. NAG and KIM-1 may have a predictive role in the detection of kidney injury in beta-TM children.

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