Background: A good survival rate among patients with beta thalassemia major (beta-TM) has led to the appearance of an unrecognized renal disease. Therefore, we aimed to assess the role of serum cystatin-C as a promising marker for the detection of renal glomerular dysfunction and N-acetyl beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) and kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1) as potential markers for the detection of renal tubular injury in beta-TM children.
Methods: This case-control study was implemented on 100 beta-TM children receiving regular blood transfusions and undergoing iron chelation therapy and 100 healthy children as a control group. Detailed histories of complete physical and clinical examinations were recorded. All subjected children underwent blood and urinary investigations.
Results: There was a significant increase in serum cystatin-C (p < 0.001) and a significant decrease in eGFR in patients with beta-TM compared with controls (p = 0.01). There was a significant increase in urinary NAG, KIM-1, UNAG/Cr, and UKIM-1/Cr (p < 0.001) among thalassemic children, with a significant positive correlation between serum cystatin-C, NAG and KIM-1 as regards serum ferritin, creatinine, and urea among thalassemic patients. A negative correlation between serum cystatin-C and urinary markers with eGFR was noted.
Conclusion: Serum cystatin-C is a good marker for detection of glomerular dysfunction. NAG and KIM-1 may have a predictive role in the detection of kidney injury in beta-TM children.Read Publication